MLPP Blog: Factually Speaking

Racial disparities persist in child poverty

Added October 2nd, 2015 by Peter Ruark | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Peter Ruark

Census numbers released in September show that although poverty is decreasing in Michigan, racial inequities still exist, especially for children.

In 2014, there were 493,000 children (22.6%) living in poverty, compared to 2013 when there were 524,000 children (23.8%) in poverty.

A 31,000 drop in the number of poor children is good news. However, more than 1 out of 5 Michigan children living in poverty is still far too many. Poverty is especially strong in families with young children—22% of families with children under 5 are in poverty compared with 19% of all families with children.

Moreover, racial disparities are stark. More than 30% of Hispanic and Native American children and 47% of African-American children lived in poverty at some point during the year, while only 15.6% of white children and 13.7% of Asian-American children did. Much of this has to do with the fact that poor white and Asian-American families often live in suburban communities with income diversity and opportunities for economic advancement, while poor African-American and Hispanic families tend to live in areas of concentrated poverty with fewer jobs and advancement opportunities.

There are policy changes the state can make to address child poverty, including modernizing its child care subsidy program, providing opportunities for parents to build their skillsimproving conditions for low-paid workers, and preserving and restoring the state Earned Income Tax Credit. The Michigan League for Public Policy advocates for these and other strategies to address child poverty.

The League will also host a free policy forum on two-generation strategies to address child and adult poverty. More information and a registration form can be found here.

– Peter Ruark


Federal balanced budget: Round two

Added September 29th, 2015 by Rachel Richards | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Rachel Richards

The bill passed by the Michigan Senate that would enter Michigan into a compact for a federal balanced budget amendment is misguided and would create serious challenges for our federal and state economy.

If you’re feeling a little déjà vu, you’re right. Last session, the Legislature passed a joint resolution calling for a federal balanced budget amendment to the United States Constitution. So far nothing has happened with that resolution, and it left a lot of unanswered questions. So with that uncertainty, this alternative approach turns the previous proposal into something more “turnkey;” everything required to giftwrap ratification of this amendment is laid out in the bill, from amendment language, to application and convention rules, to appointment of delegates, to ratification.

While there are problems with the entire “one size fits all” approach that this bill takes, I want to highlight three specific problems with the proposed constitutional amendment language itself.

    1. It would threaten federal funding for Michigan’s schools, workforce development programs, highways and more. Requiring a balanced budget would force Congress to choose between cuts to state priorities and federal ones. And each and every time, states would likely lose. About 43% of our state budget is paid for with federal funds; if the federal government were required to balance its checkbook, funding to these services could be reduced or completely cut off.
    2. It would hinder the ability to deal with unforeseen circumstances, such as devastating hurricanes, attacks on cybersecurity, acts of war or terrorism, or other national emergencies. The bill strictly limits outstanding debt, and requires approval by a majority of the states to raise the limit. Getting 26 state legislatures to agree is likely an impossible task, and even if the states do agree to raise the limit, it may be too late to provide any actual benefit. Also, it could result in federal government shutdowns, especially in economic downturns.
    3. Finally, slipped in is a requirement that two-thirds of each chamber of Congress must approve new taxes or tax increases. This supermajority requirement would not apply to elimination of loopholes, exemptions or deductions, or the elimination of the income tax in favor of a nationwide sales tax (such as the so-called “Fair Tax”). This prioritizes cuts over providing the very services that our citizens rely on and need.

This legislation is just as dangerous as the similar proposal advanced by Michigan’s Legislature, which the Michigan League for Public Policy opposed. Nearly six years after the trough of the recession, Michigan is still recovering, and we were able to start recovering in part due to help from the federal government. If these provisions had been in place, the recession—and Michigan’s struggles—would have been longer and deeper.

The provisions of this compact are only triggered once 38 states have joined. So far, only four—Alaska, Georgia, Mississippi and North Dakota—have signed on, and Michigan is one of a handful in play currently. However, we shouldn’t immediately accept this packaged deal. Michigan should take the time to determine whether this is in the best interest of the state and its residents instead of simply jumping on the latest bandwagon.

– Rachel Richards

More needs to be done to address economic disparities for kids and families

Added September 24th, 2015 by Pat Sorenson | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Pat Sorenson

As we approach the beginning of the state’s 2016 budget year, the League’s latest report weighs in on whether or not lawmakers have made the investments needed to give all Michigan residents a chance to succeed. It concludes that more needs to be done to ensure that children get a healthy start in life and a high-quality education, and their parents have the skills and resources required to succeed in the workplace.

The report outlines both wins and losses for Michigan children and their families in the 2016 budget, but the greatest concern raised is the ongoing failure to invest in programs that can lift children out of poverty and create the economic security needed to overcome deep and discouraging disparities based on income, race and place.

While there have been economic improvements nationally and in Michigan since the Great Recession, the data don’t support the claim that this is a comeback state, at least not for all Michiganians. Here are the discouraging facts:

    • Despite slight improvements in overall child poverty, nearly half of all African-American children and 1/3 of Hispanic children live in poverty.
    • The percentage of students who are reading proficiently by the end of third grade has been increasing, but there are unacceptable disparities based on race and ethnicity.
    • African-American and Hispanic students are 2 to 2 1/2 times more likely to leave school without a diploma.
    • African-American and Hispanic young adults are less likely to be enrolled in college, more likely to require remedial courses, and less likely to graduate within six years.

Among the positive budget decisions addressing these disparities are new initiatives to improve reading by third grade, increased funding for schools with high numbers of children from low-income families, and an expansion of dental care to children in three of the state’s most populous counties.

The budget falls short in key areas related to economic growth and opportunity, including woefully inadequate investments in the youngest learners ages 0 to 3, restrictions in state income assistance programs that have thrown more children into deep poverty, and limited investments in financial aid for students from low-income families.

The League has an agenda for building a stronger Michigan that lays out what is needed to create equity and opportunity for all of the state’s children and families. There are some obvious places to start including the protection and expansion of the state’s Earned Income Tax Credit—a proven anti-poverty tool, investments in child care and other supports parents need to work, the elimination of an asset test for federally-funded food assistance and the adoption of new policies that allow families to retain and build the assets they need to weather temporary economic downturns or family crises.

In the next budget and beyond, the League will be working with the governor and the Legislature to make sure that all children and families in Michigan can benefit from the state’s economic recovery and contribute to its growth. It is critical that we use the state’s resources to address the issues of equity because it is the right thing to do, and because it is the foundation for a competitive and strong economy.

– Pat Sorenson


Earned sick leave: A policy for a strong Michigan future

Added September 17th, 2015 by Alicia Guevara Warren | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Alicia Guevara Warren

When I gave birth to my sweet baby girl about seven years ago, I remember the anxiety I immediately felt about the short time I would have with her before heading back to work. Now, “short time” is all relative, because I was given the opportunity to take up to 12 weeks off, so at least I didn’t have to worry about rushing back to work too soon. But many other women are not so lucky.

Imagine this: nearly one in four new moms, who are employed, return to work within two weeks of giving birth, according to a recent report from In These Times. These are sometimes even mothers who experience complications, have C-sections or whose babies are born premature. Why do they go back to work so soon? Because they can’t afford to go without pay and their employers don’t offer sufficient paid leave time—not even for the birth of a child.

Only an estimated 13% of workers in the U.S. have access to paid leave, including sick time or maternity leave. Some workers have one pool of leave time to use, whether they are sick, taking care of a sick child or family member, or having a baby, while too many workers have no earned leave at all. That means that the vast majority of working moms in this country have some very difficult choices to make when their babies are born. They are pressured into working to support their families—an increasing number of households are comprised of single moms and their incomes are critical to their families’ survival.

Going back to work too soon can have a real impact on both the health and well-being of moms and babies. Research shows that longer maternity leave is associated with declines in depression and improvements in overall health. Not only is mom’s health affected, but babies whose moms go back too soon are less likely to be breastfed. The positive health benefits of breastfeeding have been well-documented and these babies miss out when their moms have to return to work quickly.

Furthermore, in the context of creating early learning environments to improve third-grade reading, studies have shown that babies whose moms return to work too quickly also experience negative effects in the development of their motor and social skills and even vocabulary giving policymakers yet another reason to support earned leave.

The United States remains one of the few countries in the world that doesn’t provide paid leave to parents. However, President Barack Obama has made some strides through an executive order to grant paid leave time to federal contractors. Plus, some states have taken it upon themselves to provide their workers with some form of paid leave, like California, Rhode Island and New Jersey. Here in Michigan, momentum is building to do the same. The Time to Care Coalition has launched a ballot campaign to ensure that Michigan workers—including working moms—have access to earned sick leave.

There are many reasons to support earned sick leave for all of the workers in Michigan rather than only the select few who are privileged to have it, not only as a matter of fairness, but for health, education and long-term economic strategies. As we’ve said for years, learning begins with a healthy mom and baby, which in turn results in positive educational outcomes, a prepared and skilled workforce, and a strong economy and future for our state.

 –Alicia Guevara Warren


Michigan’s Energy Future legislative package introduced in the House

Added September 10th, 2015 by Shannon Nobles | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Shannon Nobles

A new and promising package of energy legislation referred to as “Powering Michigan’s Future” has been introduced in the Michigan House of Representatives. This legislation seeks to further expand renewable energy and efficiency standards in the state, reducing pollution, health risks and energy costs in the process.

The Powering Michigan’s Future legislative package (House Bills 4055, 4518-4519 and Senate Bills 295-297) would:

    • Increase Michigan’s renewable energy standard to 20% by 2022;
    • Double the energy efficiency standard;
    • Forbid the use of surcharges to meet renewable energy goals;
    • And control energy costs and ensure reliability and affordability.

The introduction of this legislation comes at a crucial time with hearings being held in the Senate on Senator Mike Nofs’ problematic energy package.

As discussed in the League’s previous report, fact sheet and blog post, Michigan’s 2008 Clean, Renewable and Efficient Energy Act, has been very successful. The act called for renewable energy, such as wind and solar, to make up 10% of our state’s energy mix by 2015. Since the law was first passed seven years ago, clean energy in Michigan has been creating good-paying jobs, reining in costs and protecting our air, land and Great Lakes.

As we are on track for meeting that goal of 10% by 2015 and heading towards its expiration date, it is time to build upon its success. The Powering Michigan’s Future legislative package would not only do just that, but put the state in an advantageous position to meet the new mandates being passed down from the Environmental Protection Agency with their Clean Power Plan, issued August 3rd of this year.

As debate continues in the Legislature over which direction to take regarding Michigan’s energy future, please contact your legislators in support of the Powering Michigan’s Future legislative package. As Governor Rick Snyder said in his March address on energy, “…we all know the cheapest energy is energy we don’t use,” so let’s support energy efficiency and renewable energy efforts to bring our state to a place of responsible environmental action, good health and a new and profitable green jobs economy.

– Shannon Nobles


Hard work, the American dream and tax credits

Added September 8th, 2015 by Rachel Richards | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Rachel Richards

On Monday, we as a nation celebrated Labor Day. While—unfortunately—many people see it only as a day off of work, a day full of sales at the mall, and the last big grill out of the summer, Labor Day was actually established to pay tribute to the contributions and achievements of American workers. On a day that celebrates the value of work, it’s also a good time to reflect on two of our nation’s best pro-work tools and the workers they help. The federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the Child Tax Credit (CTC) keep millions of working families out of poverty and support a diverse array of professionals across the country and around Michigan.

This fall, Congress has a critical opportunity to permanently extend key provisions of these pro-work tax credits that are set to expire. But if it fails to do so, 727,000 children in 415,000 Michigan families will lose some or all of their credits, and as a result, 176,000 children and 357,000 Michiganders will be pushed into—or deeper into—poverty.

According to a recent report, the EITC and CTC do not discriminate against industries or occupations; these credits help working residents in a wide range of jobs. The following Michigan workers could lose all or part of their credits if we let these provisions expire:

    • 70,800 cashiers and retail clerks;
    • 68,800 in the manufacturing industry, such as machine operators and welders;
    • 68,400 administrative assistants and other office support staff;
    • and 56,500 food service workers—such as waitresses, dishwashers and cooks.

Often seeing these numbers en masse distances one from the real people affected; however, likely everyone knows or interacts with someone who receives the EITC, the CTC, or both. It could be your regular waitress at your favorite diner who’s a single mom of two kids, or the cashier who rings you up with your Sunday groceries who’s a grandfather raising his grandson. It could also be your son’s preschool teacher or a parent’s home health aide. These are real working people in our very own communities who rely on these credits to help pay the bills, provide for their children, and pay for simple needs like groceries and transportation.

While Michigan’s urban workers are slightly more likely to claim the EITC than rural workers, poverty is not just an urban issue, and these credits are important to Michigan’s rural residents as well. According to Center for Budget and Policy Priorities estimates, in Michigan, 155,000 rural households received the EITC, the low-income part of the CTC, or both in 2013, and 86,000 would lose all or part of their credit if these key provisions expire. About 7,100 workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing and hunting industries, including the farm workers and loggers who are a big part of Michigan’s economy, could lose all or part of their credits.

The benefits of the EITC and CTC are undisputed. These tax credits encourage work, help lift families out of poverty, and improve the lives of children. Additionally, research shows children in families that benefit from the EITC and CTC are healthier, do better in school, are more likely to go to college, and earn more as adults.

The EITC and CTC only go to people who work, and they encourage employment and self-sufficiency. So when lawmakers return to work in Washington after Labor Day, a day when we recognize all of the hard work that Americans nationwide put into their jobs, lawmakers in Washington should do the right thing—protect our hardworking Americans and make these key provisions permanent.

– Rachel Richards


Michigan’s declining unemployment rate not the whole story

Added September 3rd, 2015 by Peter Ruark | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Peter Ruark

This Labor Day, as we celebrate workers and the fact that Michigan’s unemployment rate (5.3%) is the lowest it has been since October 2001, we also need to keep in mind that the unemployment rate by itself does not give the full picture. There are many other factors that influence the health of the economy or the environment for workers, as noted in this new report by the League. When unemployment numbers are compared with the labor force participation rate and other economic benchmarks, we see a much different story.

First, a clarification is necessary. The unemployment rate measures the percentage of the labor force that wants to work but is not working; it does not measure the percentage of working-age population that is unemployed or has given up and left the labor force entirely. It also says nothing about the loss of workers from the labor force over time, with many workers simply leaving Michigan. Michigan’s long-term unemployment rate is also still steep, with 34.8% of jobless workers in the state being unemployed for six months or more.

This is a technical explanation of a very simple concept: Michigan’s unemployment rate is going down because people are giving up looking for work, retiring or leaving the state to pursue employment elsewhere, not just because they’re all getting jobs.

During 2000, when Michigan’s economy was at its best in many decades with an annual unemployment rate of 3.6%, the state’s labor force participation rate was 69%—in other words, 69% of Michigan’s population 16 and over was in the labor force and actively looking for work. Fast forward to 2014, when our unemployment rate began its slow return to the 2001 levels we celebrate today. Our labor force participation rate in 2014 was only 60.5% (a huge drop from 2000) and the labor force was comprised of slightly more than 4.75 million workers—a loss of more than 412,000 workers since 2000!

Additionally, our Labor Day Report shows that simply having a job is not enough for many workers trying to make ends meet. Much of Michigan’s job growth has been in part-time or low-wage jobs. Currently, 25% of adult workers are in low-wage jobs and 32.4% of working families in Michigan are low income, perpetuating the high poverty rate in the state. Unemployment and low wages also continue to disproportionately affect people of color.

While 2015 labor statistics are not yet available, it would be unrealistic to imagine that the state will have added hundreds of thousands of workers this year or that a significantly higher percentage of the population will be in the labor force. Those are the numbers that will illustrate real economic recovery, and despite the better unemployment rate, these are issues Michigan must address.

So, let’s raise our glasses this Labor Day weekend to the decreasing unemployment rate while acknowledging that our state is not yet out of the woods, nor will it be for quite some time. And let’s encourage policymakers to make the changes needed to ensure that all workers are part of the recovering economy in Michigan.

– Peter Ruark


Aging baby boomers face huge hurdle with Food Assistance Asset Test

Added September 2nd, 2015 by Gilda Z. Jacobs | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Gilda Z. Jacobs

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When most of us think of hunger and those in need, we think of children. As our recent Kids Count Data Book points out, too many Michigan children are currently facing poverty and hunger. But there’s another group of people who are also struggling with hunger, and it might come as a surprise: baby boomers.

I was alarmed to read a recent report by Feeding America, a nationwide network of food banks, that found 13 million adults age 50 and older now receive some sort of charitable food assistance. Due to their specific economic and health concerns, members of the baby-boom generation are particularly susceptible to hunger. Individuals age 50 to 64 don’t yet qualify for Medicare or Social Security and suddenly find themselves facing increased costs with limited and waning resources.

According to the study by Feeding America, 62% of older adult clients at food banks and pantries fall into this age group. These increased numbers are being seen in Michigan, too. The food-insecurity rate among older adults in Southeast Michigan rose from 7% in 2010 to 17% in 2014.

Over the next 25 years, the number of older adults is expected to more than double, with the baby boom quickly becoming the “senior swell.” From policymakers to advocates and service providers, we all have to be ready to make sure our seniors don’t have to go hungry.

For decades, our seniors have worked hard to build lives and raise families here in Michigan. They have done their part, and they deserve the utmost dignity and support as their needs change. That means that Michigan needs to have sound public policy and a strong safety net for older Michiganders. Unfortunately, state lawmakers have made a series of policy changes that have hurt seniors and low-income families and created barriers to financial stability instead of eliminating them.

In 2011, the Homestead Property Tax Credit was cut, inordinately hurting seniors. On average, seniors’ Homestead Property Tax Credit refund fell by 20% in 2012, 8% more than other taxpayers. The special tax exemptions for seniors were also eliminated, and the Michigan Earned Income Tax Credit was cut and continues to be threatened.

While we have to undo these inequitable tax changes, the state’s changes to public assistance are just as harmful. Michigan was one of the states that was hardest hit by the recession, and many of our at-risk populations have yet to experience any type of economic relief. In 2011, Michigan legislators went directly against the grain and made it harder for low-income people to get help by passing a $5,000 asset limit for food assistance. Meanwhile, 70% of the states have eliminated their asset tests.

As a reminder, food assistance or SNAP is a federal program paid for with federal dollars. This asset test does not save Michigan taxpayers any money, but it adds a major hurdle for those in need.

The $5,000 asset test includes cash and some savings. A household’s primary home and one vehicle are exempted, and the first $15,000 is exempted from a second vehicle if the household has more than one vehicle. As you can imagine, this would disqualify a significant number of baby boomers and seniors who may be in immediate need for assistance despite having accumulated some assets over their lives. Low-income boomers who have responsibly built up a savings nest egg now have to make a choice between reducing their savings accounts or going without needed food assistance—a lose-lose situation. Michiganders, including older residents, should be eligible for state assistance if they qualify based on their income, not their assets.

Not every working adult has the luxury of being secure in retirement, but they also don’t have the ability to keep working indefinitely. As the number of aging baby boomers in Michigan continues to grow, the need for some to receive state assistance is going to increase as well. State policymakers should be anticipating this need and preparing for it, and that can start with eliminating Michigan’s unnecessary asset test on food assistance.

– Gilda Z. Jacobs


Good news: The ACA is working as intended

Added August 25th, 2015 by Jan Hudson | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Jan Hudson

It has been said many times before, but bears repeating—the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is doing what it was designed to do. The ACA has succeeded in providing quality healthcare coverage and reducing the number of uninsured, and with its consumer protections, fewer individuals are experiencing trouble paying medical bills. According to a recent Gallup Poll, only Texas maintains an uninsured rate greater than 20% of its residents, no state has reported a statistically significant increase since 2013, and seven states through the first half of 2015 have uninsured rates that are at or below 5%.

Those who oppose the law continue the drum beat that the law is failing, especially as another presidential election heats up, but the research tells a different story.

The positive national findings are confirmed in Michigan according to the Center for Healthcare Research and Transformation’s (CHRT) 2014 Cover Michigan Survey. The report stated, “Overall, the number of residents reporting they were uninsured, struggled to pay medical bills and/or delayed seeking needed medical care has dropped significantly compared to CHRT survey findings before the launch of the ACA coverage expansions.” The survey found the percent of adult Michiganders without healthcare coverage declined from 14% in 2012 to 7% in 2014 and that the percent of residents who had difficulty paying medical bills declined from 27% in 2012 to 20% in 2014.

In addition, the ACA has not resulted in the dramatic job losses and reductions in work hours that opponents predicted. A recent analysis by ADP Research Institute, the research arm of a payroll-management firm, found that on an aggregate basis, jobs have not been lost or hours reduced because of requirements of the ACA. An improving economy is seen as having the greatest impact, with full-time jobs increasing by 9% between 2010 and 2015, and part-time jobs decreasing slightly.

There is also good news on health insurance rate increases for plans being sold on the federal Health Insurance Marketplace in 2016. While many states are reporting average increases of more than 10%, for Michigan, the average insurance rate increase approved by the Department of Insurance and Financial Services is only about 6.5%. The approved increases do vary considerably by plan, ranging from an increase of 35.8% to a decrease of 12.6%. The Michigan increase is described as “modest.”

The ACA is not perfect and amending the law could improve its benefits, but this data shows it is achieving its goal. Thanks to the ACA, great gains have been made in health insurance coverage and affordability for moderate and low-income residents without the dire negative impacts and consequences predicted by the law’s opponents.

  – Jan Hudson

A two-generation strategy to reduce poverty and increase school success

Added August 21st, 2015 by Pat Sorenson | Email This Entry Email This Entry
Pat Sorenson

The message was loud and clear at the State Board of Education meeting last week: family income and school success are inextricably linked, and Michigan’s school reform efforts will not succeed if the state doesn’t address that reality.

League President and CEO Gilda Z. Jacobs was invited by the State Board and new Superintendent Brian Whiston to address what it would take to make Michigan a top ten state for education. The Board is seeking input from education and business groups, advocacy organizations, teachers and parents—with the goal of developing a much-needed plan for action.

As the recent Kids Count Data Book revealed, child poverty is increasing in Michigan despite overall economic recovery, with 28% of all young children living in poverty, and rates much higher for children of color. The sad reality is that public policy decisions have made the problem worse, including reductions in the state Earned Income Tax Credit and punitive school truancy policies.

The impact of childhood poverty on education and the economy is clear:

  • The number of school children eligible for free- or reduced-price lunches continues to be the most reliable predictor of standardized test scores, and little has changed despite years of reform efforts.
  • Children in low-income families are more than twice as likely to repeat a grade, a strong predictor of school dropout. One of four adults who spend more than three years in poverty fails to receive a high school diploma.
  • Only one-quarter of women who spend half of their childhood in poverty are consistently employed as adults.

The League supports a two-generation solution to poverty and education that ensures that all children are ready for school and can succeed once they enter the school house doors, and simultaneously helps parents get the education and training they need to increase family income.

Our top three priorities include:

1. Reduce disparities based on income, race and place by targeting resources to high poverty districts and communities of color, beginning with full funding of the At-Risk program. The At-Risk program allocates funds to school districts based on the number of low-income children. With the governor’s leadership there will be a much-needed increase in the 2016 budget year—the first in more than a decade—but the program is not fully funded and needs to be.

2. Invest in early care and education with a stronger focus on child care and services for families with infants and toddlers. With the governor and Legislature’s leadership, Michigan has made great strides in enrolling low-income 4-year-olds in high quality preschool programs. Yet to be addressed are the woefully inadequate investments in children from birth through age 3—the time of greatest brain growth and learning. Among the early priorities are increased access to proven home-visiting programs and state funds for infants and toddlers who have been identified by the Early On program as having developmental delays.

From a two-generation perspective, greater investments in child care are especially critical. Without subsidies, high quality child care is unaffordable for most low-wage parents, and children placed in unsafe or low quality care can miss a critical window for early learning, with lifelong repercussions. Unfortunately, Michigan has some of the lowest eligibility and payment rates in the country, and the number of families helped by Michigan’s child care subsidy has plummeted.

3. Strengthen adult education and training. Adult education is a transition into the postsecondary education or training needed to create a competitive workforce in Michigan. Over 222,000 Michigan adults lack a high school diploma or GED, but fewer than 7% are enrolled in adult education and funding for adult education has dropped an astonishing 90% since 1996.

While alleviating poverty cannot be the primary focus of public schools, we also cannot continue to proceed with reform efforts with our heads in the sand, denying the indisputable impact of income, race and place on school success. We applaud the initiative taken by the Superintendent and the State Board and appreciate the opportunity to be involved. We hope their work will lead to policies and investments that can help move the dial on education.

– Pat Sorenson


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